Intellectual rights are often easily misunderstood by the general public, or all too frequently ignored in the digital age.

Generally, works created before 1926, be they engravings or texts, are in public domain worldwide; copies of original artwork or transcriptions of original texts, in that they  faithful reproductions of historic works, are in public domain pursuant to Bridgeman v. Corel (S.D.N.Y. 1999) and the EU Copyright Directive (2001). Queen City Classical Fencing endeavors to give credit to the history aficionados who take on the important burden of scanning or transcribing original creations, and are expressly indicated in image metadata where possible.

Individuals with the skill to interpret and translate texts into another language are creating new works.  Contemporary translations are generally protected under international copyright unless the copyright is abandoned. If the copyright is maintained, translations are linked to their published locations on the web.

Although the Queen City Classical Fencing endeavors to provide correct attribution, mistakes can be made or not provided by other online sources. Correct attributions are often overlooked by inattentive webmasters and bloggers.  Any updated or corrected attribution information for content presented on would be welcomed. Please contact me here.